How do I file a complaint?

If you are not satisfied with our services, you can send an email to info@vhlgenetics.com. You will receive a response from us within 5 working days. We would like to receive as much information as possible that relates to the complaint, such as your order number.

What is the difference between the Genetic and Serological tests for Blood Group AB?

The Blood Group AB genetic test for Ragdoll cats (K300) can determine whether your cat likely has Serotype AB (N/b) or not. If negative, it does not determine whether the cat has Serotype A (N/N) or B (b/b).

The serological test (K712) directly determines your cat’s serotype: A (N/N), B (b/b) or AB (N/b). This can only be tested on a blood sample.



What is a serotype and why should I test it?

Just as with humans, cats have several different possible blood types, or “serotypes”: A (genotype N/N), B (genotype b/b) and AB (genotype N/b). The cat’s immune system produces antibodies that attack cells with the opposite serotype; e.g. a cat with Serotype A produces antibodies agaisnt Serotype B, and a cat with Serotype B produces antibodies against Serotype A. A cat with Serotype AB produces neither.

This means that a cat cannot recieve a blood transfusion from a cat with another serotype, as this would cause a dangerous and likely fatal reaction. These antibodies are also produced in a female cat’s milk, and will attack kittens of the opposite serotype (known as Neonatal Isoerythrolysis), which is also often fatal. A Serotype B mother has produces especially strong antibodies against Type A.

It is therefore important to match donor and recipient serotypes, and ensure that breeding pairs will result in kittens with the same serotype as their mother.



When can I expect my result(s)?

The delivery time of the result may differ per test. Normally, the delivery time of the result is 10 working days after receipt of the sample for DNA tests that we perform at our location in Wageningen. Tests that are not performed in our own laboratory have a delivery time of 20 working days after receipt of the sample.

When you order the test in our webshop, we will let you know when you can expect the result.

What is a ‘External Patent Lab’ test?

An ‘External Patent Lab’ test is performed by the patent holder. One reason may be that this party has developed the test itself and has applied for a patent. As a result, other labs in the region, like us, are not allowed to perform this test themselves.

The delivery time of the result of a patent test is at least 20 working days after receipt of the sample, because the transport time to foreign laboratories can vary greatly due unexpected delays.

What is a parentage verification?

A parentage verification is a comparison of the hereditary information (the DNA profile) of the offspring with the sire and/or dam.

We determine the DNA profile of the offspring and we need the DNA profiles of the parent animals to check the parentage. With a correct descent, all hereditary information of the offspring is combined with the sire and/or dam.

A DNA profile and parentage verification do not provide information about hereditary abnormalities.

What is a DNA profile?

Every animal has its own hereditary information. We can use this information to establish a DNA profile for individual animals. The DNA profile is unique for each animal.

The parentage can be checked with the DNA profile of your animal and the DNA profiles of both parent animals.

A DNA profile does not provide information about hereditary abnormalities.

How do you help me with my animal’s health?

CombeBreed helps to improve the animals health by providing genetic information of individual animals. The genetic information consist of DNA-tests that provide more information over the genetic background, genetic diseases and phenotypical characteristics like coat colour.  This genetic information helps breeders to implement a sustainable breeding policy. With the results of this information, a breeder can prevent a genetic disorder from being passed on in the breeding line.

Why are some tests breed dependent?

The varieties are mentioned at all our tests because the relevant mutation occurs in these varieties. The mention of a variety can take place on the basis of two information flows. See information about these topics below.

• Development through science:
Science links variation in DNA to syndromes/characteristics. A diagnostic test is developed by comparing the symptoms of a disease/characteristic with variation in the DNA. This normally leads to publication in a scientific article. Often these articles are based on a single breed.

• Other breeds:
Mutations described and validated in one breed can also occur in other breeds. This is often no longer published in scientific articles. It is very possible that the mutation occurs in other breeds and causes a similar effect.

• Remarks:
If the result of a DNA test indicates that an animal is not a carrier of a mutation, this is no guarantee that this animal will never develop the disease or the characteristic, for example on the basis of unknown mutations.

When the result of a DNA test indicates that an animal is a sufferer (or carrier) of a mutation, this is normally the basis for assuming that an animal will develop the disease or trait.

The owner is responsible for the decision whether he / she wants to have a test carried out based on above information.

Is it possible to make (price) agreements?

As a (breed) association it is possible to make agreements with our laboratories and to offer the members of the association a discount for various DNA tests. We can also offer a breeder or owner, in certain cases, a discount based on the supply of a large number of samples. We would like to hear from you if you or your (breed) association is interested. Please contact us.

How do I submit blood?

The blood from your animal is generally drawn by a veterinarian. It is possible to supply Blood (EDTA) and Blood (Heparin). We would like to receive 2 ml of blood.

What material can I submit for a DNA test?

Various sample materials can be sent in to investigate the DNA of your animal. In the webshop, it is stated per DNA test which material can be sent in. Swabs and blood are the most submitted samples for dogs and cats, hair and blood are the most submitted samples for horses.

What is a Witness Sampling Statement?

We offer the option of using a ‘Statement from witness sampling’, during the collection of the DNA sample. During the sampling, a witness present declares that the data of the sample corresponds with the data noted on the order confirmation of the webshop. This is checked by the witness by means of, for example, chip numbers, and stated on the ‘Sampling witness statement’ form.

The form ‘Statement of witness Sampling’ is available as a PDF in last step of the ordering process. There are costs associated with using this form. The form can be added to your order during the ordering process,

The form must be sent along with the sample and the printed order confirmation of the webshop order in the CombiBreed shipping box.

What is the status of my order?

After logging in to your personal account you can always follow the status under ‘My orders’. When the result is available, it will also be displayed here. You will also be kept informed of the status of your order(s) by e-mail.

What does H1 result mean?

The result ‘H1’ can be stated in the report. This means that the quality of the sample has been insufficient and therefore no result is reported. A new test will be performed free of charge. This new test will be conducted with a new sample which we will send you. Sample material will be sent free of charge.

What is a retest?

We believe it is important that we provide DNA results with the highest quality. The test will be redone at our expense if a test does not meet our quality requirements. We will always inform you if such a situation arises. Unfortunately, the turnaround time increases, but in the end you always get the correct information about your animals!

Is a swab as reliable as a sample of blood?

The DNA that we obtain from a swab of your animal is just as reliable as the DNA that is obtained from a sample of blood. Sometimes a sample does not meet our quality requirements and therefore it is not possible to extract enough DNA from the sample. In that case, we always request a new sample from you.