Cystinuria is an inherited disorder caused by a defect in the transport of cystine, an amino acid, in the kidney tubules. Normally, cystine that is filtered in the kidney is reabsorbed within the tubules, resulting in little cystine in the urine. Dogs with Cystinuria do not properly reabsorb cystine (and a few other amino acids) in the kidney tubules, causing the urine to contain abnormally high levels of cystine. Cystine is insoluble in neutral pH or acidic urine, so excess urinary cystine results in formation of cystine crystals, which in turn can lead to formation of cystine calculi (stones) in the kidney and/or bladder. Because males have long, narrow urethras compared to females, irritation and blockage by calculi is much more common in the male. Males with Cystinuria suffer repeated inflammations of the urinary tract and are at risk for urinary blockage, which can, if not treated promptly, lead to kidney failure, bladder rupture, and death. Cystinuria has been reported in many breeds (and mixed breeds) of dogs.
Test specific information
The genetic factor is continuously present, and will always be visible.
The Turnaround Time (TAT) depends on various factors, such as the shipment time of your sample to the test location, the test method(s) and whether the tests are performed completely or partially by a Partner Lab or Patent owner.
The TAT of tests performed at our facilities is normally 10 working days after receipt of the sample at the testing laboratory (VHL, VHP or Certagen). For tests performed by a Partner Laboratory (so-called "partner lab test") or patent owner, the TAT is at least 20 working days after receipt of your sample. Because the shipment time to our Partner Labs or patent owner may vary due to factors we cannot influence, the mentioned 20 working days are therefore an estimate.
Sometimes it is necessary to re-run your sample. We call this a retest. In that case, the TAT will of course be extended.
Location of disease or trait
This disease is present in the entire body, but causes main effects in the internal organs such as stomach, intestinal tract, liver and / or kidneys. In a number of cases, the disease affects one major internal organ.
This DNA test is available for the following breeds: Miniature Pinscher. Additional information is available in the Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ).
For this DNA test we accept the following materials: Semen, Blood EDTA, Blood Heparin, Tissue, Swab. Please contact Dr. Van Haeringen Laboratorium if you wish to submit other material as listed.
An animal can be free and has in that situation two healthy alleles. When used in breeding this animal will not become ill due to the disease. It cannot spread the disease in the population.
An animal can be carrier and has in that situation one healthy and one disease allele. When used in breeding 50 percent of the offspring will receive the disease allele. Carriers will not become ill.
An animal can be affected and has in that situation two disease alleles. When used in breeding all offspring will also receive the disease allele. Affected will become ill.
This genetic factor is inherited in an autosomal, recessive, mode. This means, that the individual can be free of the disease (homozygote normal), affected (homozygous affected) or carrier (heterozygous).
Carriers may spread the mutation in a population without showing symptoms themselves. Because of this, it is extremely important to identify carriers correctly to prevent spreading of a mutation.
Severity of Disease